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Updated on August 1, 2013

Curriculum Vitae

Bruce L. Bachelder, PhD

Psychologist in Independent Practice, Retired
Health Services Provider-Psychologist (NC License # 0679, inactive)

306 West Union Street
Morganton, NC 28655-3729

Cell: 828-430-0421
bruce@brucebachelderphd.com

Member:
American Psychological Association
Association for Psychological Science (formerly: American Psychological Society)
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (formerly: American Association on Mental Retardation)
International Society for Intelligence Research

Education and Degrees

1970
PhD in Psychology (emphasis on experimental study of intellectual disability, developmental psychology, and learning), Michigan State University
1969
MA in Psychology (emphasis on experimental study of intellectual disability, developmental psychology, and learning), Michigan State University
1966
BS in Psychology (emphasis on sciences and mathematics), Michigan State University

Professional Experience

2004 to Present
Primary focus on professional writing and speaking
1987 to January 15, 2004
Full-time independent practice of psychology in joint practice with Judith B. Bachelder, MA, Educational Therapist. The psychology practice is a fairly general practice seeing about equal numbers of adults and children, doing therapy and evaluations. We have a distinct emphasis on school learning and adjustment problems but see adults for depression, anxiety, etc. The approach is primarily cognitive-behavioral/eclectic.
1980 to 1986
Full-time independent practice of psychology (a cognitive-behavioral/eclectic approach), psychological evaluations (specializing in school learning and adjustment problems), consulting in hospitals and institutions, and college teaching. The practice, though a general practice, deals primarily with children and focuses on school learning and adjustment problems. I worked closely with my wife, Judith, a special educator with her own independent practice, diagnosing and treating school learning and adjustment problems.
1984 to May 1986
I served as a Consulting Psychologist at the Cleveland County Mental Health Center, in Shelby, NC. I worked within the Children and Youth Division seeing children in therapy but I also saw a few adults, especially when their problems bore on their children's problems. My work was nearly all psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, counseling, and family counseling. Occasionally I did some intellectual evaluations. In general, I was there two days a week but from time to time I adjusted my schedule to one or three days according to their needs and my availability from my own practice.
1975-1980
Research Scientist, Western Carolina Center, Morganton, NC. I focused on research into intellectual and learning problems of intellectual disability especially as they bear on special education and training in the home and in the classroom.
1973
Director of the Habilitation Unit, Western Carolina Center
1972
Director of the "H-Area" cottage and school programs, Western Carolina Center
1971
Senior Psychologist, Cottage Program Coordinator, Regional Consultant in Education and Training, Western Carolina Center, Morganton, NC
1969
Research Psychologist, Caro State Home and Training School, Caro, Michigan
1966
USPHS Trainee in intellectual disability research, Michigan State University

Research Experience

1966 to Present
Continuous research program in intellectual disability, intelligence, and learning. My primary research interest has given rise to SAAS-123, an application of span theory and task analysis of span load (TASL) for the evaluation of people with severe and profound intellectual disability. Span theory is a theory of normal and delayed mental development and function. TASL is a set of constructs and procedures by which the principles of span theory are brought to bear on basic research and applied problems in the classroom, sheltered workshop, etc.
1980 to 2000
My professional work with children having problems in school has greatly influenced my research so that I now spend considerable research time in the areas of underachievement, learning disabilities, hyperactivity/attention problems, family factors, and other psychological disorders which bear negatively on school performance. Recently, 1995 to 1998, I have focused my writing on attention problems and hyperactivity problems, critiquing the medical model of AD/HD and learning disorders. I advocate a) improvements in the way these problems are defined and diagnosed and b) substantially increased reliance on proven psychological interventions for the full range of attention problems.

College Appointments

1982-1983
Adjunct Faculty member, McDowell Technical College, Marion, NC
1980-1983
Adjunct Faculty member, Western Piedmont Community College, Morganton, NC
1979
Adjunct Faculty member, Mars Hill College, Mars Hill, NC
1978-1979
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC
1973-1978
Adjunct Professor of Psychology, Davidson College, Davidson, NC
1971-1975
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Education, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC

Publications

Bachelder, B. L. (1970 /1971). The memory span paradigm: Its use for the analysis of mental retardation. (Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International, 32(1), 576B-577B.

Bachelder, B. L. (1977). Memory span tests and the ability to imitate word sequences and sentences. Ohio Journal of Speech and Hearing, 13(1), 5-15. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (2001). The magical number 4 = 7: Span theory on capacity limitations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 116-117. [The full commentary]

Bachelder, B. L., & Denny, M. R. (1977a). A theory of intelligence: I. Span and the complexity of stimulus control. Intelligence, 1, 127-150. [Available on request]

Bachelder, B. L., & Denny, M. R. (1977b). A theory of intelligence: II. The role of span in a variety of intellectual tasks. Intelligence,1, 237-256. [Available on request]

Presentations at National Meetings

Bachelder, B. L. (2005, August). Crucial errors in Miller's application of information metrics in a comparison of the spans of absolute judgment and immediate memory. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the Society for Mathematical Psychology, Memphis, TN [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (1980, March). Immediate memory span and multidimensional absolute judgment. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Gatlinburg Conference on Research in Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities, Gatlinburg, TN.

Bachelder, B. L. (1978, March). Span Theory: Laboratory and classroom applications. Three-Part Paper Presented at the Eleventh Annual Gatlinburg Conference on Research in Mental Retardation. Gatlinburg, TN.

Bachelder, B. L. (1977, March). A research strategy for studying cognition and intelligence through study of individual differences in span ability. Paper presented at the Tenth Annual Gatlinburg Conference on Research in Mental Retardation, Gatlinburg, TN. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L., & Denny, M. R. (1976, March). Span theory: A new theory of intelligence. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Gatlinburg Conference on Research in Mental Retardation, Gatlinburg, TN. [The full paper]

Baldwin, S. J., Whitley, K. P., & Bachelder, B. L. (1977, November). Intentionality of prelanguage utterances by the profoundly retarded. Paper presented by S. J. Baldwin at the National Convention of the American Speech and Hearing Association, Chicago, IL.

Larsen, L. A., Bachelder, B. L., & Frassrand, E. J. (1972, May) Child advocacy: Implications for Institutional Organization and Management. Paper presented by L. A. Larsen at the Annual Meeting of the American Association on Mental Deficiency, Minneapolis.

Presentations at Regional Meetings

Bachelder, B. L. (1997, September). "If you don't like me I'll hate you:" A psychological cause of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Syndrome (ADHS). Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Virginia Beach Conference: Children and Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Virginia Beach, VA. [Abstract]

Bachelder, B. L. (1997, September). Two Dozen Reasons ADHD is Overdiagnosed. Workshop at the Seventh Annual Virginia Beach Conference: Children and Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Virginia Beach, VA. [Abstract]

Bachelder, B. L. (1997, September). Inhibited sadness: A psychological cause of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Syndrome (ADHS). Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Virginia Beach Conference: Children and Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Virginia Beach, VA. [Abstract]

Bachelder, B. L. (1997, September). The use of the aSpan test as a quick indicator of test anxiety. Poster session at the Seventh Annual Virginia Beach Conference: Children and Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Virginia Beach, VA. [Abstract]

Bachelder, B. L. (1996, October). The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Syndrome versus the ADHD disorder. Paper presented at the Sixth Annual Virginia Beach Conference: Children and Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Virginia Beach, VA. [Abstract]

Bachelder, B. L. (1996, October). Adjustment disorders misdiagnosed as ADHD. Paper presented at the Sixth Annual Virginia Beach Conference: Children and Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Virginia Beach, VA. [Abstract]

Bachelder, B. L. (1981, November). The use of non-verbal span tests to measure the cognitive abilities of non-verbal, cerebral palsied, institutional adolescents. Workshop presented at the 27th Annual Training Institute and Annual meeting of SEAAMD (South Eastern American Association on Mental Deficiency), Jackson, MS.

Bachelder, B. L. (1972, May). Behavior Modification -- Home and School. Presentation at a regional conference entitled "Parent Involvement in Education of Children with Developmental Problems," Mississippi State University. [Available on request.]

Presentations at State Meetings

Bachelder, B. L. (2007, March). The construct validity of memory span as a measure of intelligence. Paper presented at the Annual North Carolina Cognition Conference, Chapel Hill, NC. [Abstract]
    [The slides]

Bachelder, B. L. (2005, February). The spans question: Challenges to the memory interpretation of the so-called "memory" span test. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the North Carolina Cognition Group, Winston-Salem, NC. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (1979, November). Span ability and retardate performance and learning in multi-trial free recall. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Cognition Group of North Carolina, Durham, NC.

Bachelder, B. L. (1978, December). Applications of span theory: Basic and applied research in intelligence. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Cognition Group of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC.

Bachelder, B. L. (1976, November). Sentence imitation by retardates as a function of span ability and memory load. Paper presented at the Sixth Annual Mental Health Research Meeting, Goldsboro, NC. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. & Larsen, L. A. (1973). From theory to practice: Basic and applied research in psychology. Paper presented at the Annual Research Meeting of the North Carolina Division of Mental Health, Department of Human Resources, Morganton, NC. [The full paper]

Larsen, L. A., Bachelder, B. L., & Frassrand, E. J. (1973, March). Child Advocacy: Implications for Institutional Organization and Management. Paper presented at a Special Study Institute on Children, Child Advocacy, and North Carolina, Raleigh, NC.

Miscellaneous Papers and Reports

Bachelder, B. L. (2000). The magical number 7: What did Miller really prove? Unpublished paper. [The full document]

Bachelder, B. L. (2000). Preface to Span theory: A theory of mental retardation and intelligence. Unpublished manuscript. [The full manuscript]

Bachelder, B. L. (1999). SPAN theory is not Span Theory: A brief note. Unpublished paper. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (1997, May). An Overview of Span Theory: Poster Session at the Golden Anniversary Celebration, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. [A copy is available on request]

Bachelder, B. L. (1981). Span theory and task complexity analysis: An introduction. Unpublished paper. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (1977). An experimental-psychometric analysis of span ability. Unpublished paper. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (1975). Sentence imitation by retardates as a function of span ability and memory load: A brief report. Department of Psychology, Western Carolina Center, Morganton, NC. [The full report]

Bachelder, B. L. (February, 1974). Span ability and the response string: Two constructs relevant to structural analysis of complex behavior. Western Carolina Center Papers and Reports, 4(2). [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (1974). Span ability, word frequency, and free learning among retarded adolescents. Western Carolina Center Papers and Reports, IV(16). [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. (June, 1972). Stimulus presentation rate and retardate digit spans. Western Carolina Center Papers and Reports in Mental Retardation, 2(3). [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L., Harris, C. R., Doss, J. L., & Roberto, N. J. (1973). Span ability and imitation of random words, meaningless sentences, and meaningful sentences: A brief report. Unpublished paper. [The full paper]

Bachelder, B. L. & Larsen, L. A. (March, 1974). From theory to practice: Basic and applied research in psychology. Western Carolina Center Papers and Reports, 4(7). [The full paper]